EmmetropiaNormal vision, no correction needed. (See diagram of the eye.)
Esophoria (Eso) (clinical condition)A tendency of the eyes to want to turn more inward than necessary when an individual is viewing an object at near or at distance, which may cause the individual to experience eyestrain and other symptoms. Symptoms of basic esophoria include: eyestrain, headaches, blurred or double vision, apparent movement of print, and difficulty concentrating on and comprehending reading material. Clinical signs of basic esophoria include: AC/A ratio is normal, equal esophoria at distance and near, and normal near point of convergence. Sometimes esophoria is caused by a refractive error such as hyperopia (farsightedness), and glasses or contacts can correct the problem alone. However, sometimes vision therapy is needed to to help re-train the eyes to function more appropriately. (See "Convergence Excess" and "Divergence Insufficiency")
Esotropia (ET) (clinical condition)A condition in which an eye is turned either constantly or intermittently inward toward the nose. Esotropia is a type of strabismus. It is caused by a reduction in visual acuity, reduced visual function, high refractive error, traumatic brain injury, oculomotor nerve lesion, or eye muscle injury. Treatment options may include one or more of the following: glasses or contacts, bi-focal lenses, prisms, vision therapy, surgery, or Botulinum Toxin Type A (Oculinum, Botox®) injections. In some cases, esotropia is caused by a refractive error such as hyperopia (farsightedness), and glasses or contacts alone may allow the eyes to straighten. Vision therapy is most appropriate when there are small degrees of misalignment. Surgery, to re-position or shorten the eye muscles, may be required for high degrees of misalignment. If surgery is required, a combination of surgery and vision therapy often yields the best results. For more information, see "Strabismus".
Convergence Insufficiency" and "Divergence Excess")
In the case of Graves Disease, the displacement of the eye is due to abnormal connective tissue deposition in the orbit and extraocular muscles which can be visualized by CT or MRI.
If left untreated, exophthalmos can causes the eye lids to fail to close during sleep leading to corneal damage. The process that is causing the displacement of the eye may also compress the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery leading to blindness.