How does the eye work.
How can we see?

Anatomy and workings of the eye...

The eye is about as big as a ping-pong ball and sits in a little hollow area (the eye socket) in the skull.

The white part of the eyeball is called the sclera. The sclera is made of a tough material and covers most of the eyeball.

The part of the sclera in front of the coloured part of the eye is called the cornea. Unlike the rest of the sclera, which is white, the cornea is transparent, or completely clear, which lets light travel through it. The cornea helps the eye focus as light makes its way through it. It is made of clear tissue. Like clear glass, the cornea gives your eye a clear window to view the world through.

Behind the cornea are the iris and the pupil. The iris has muscles attached to it that change its shape. This allows the iris to control how much light goes through the pupil. The pupil lets light enter the eye.

Between the iris and cornea is the anterior chamber. This chamber is filled with a special transparent fluid that gives the eye oxygen, protein, and glucose (a type of sugar in the body) to keep it healthy.

After light enters the pupil, it hits the lens. The lens sits behind the iris and is clear and colourless. The lens focuses light rays on the back of the eyeball - a part called the retina.

The retina is in the very back of the eye, past the vitreous body. Though it's smaller than a dime, it holds millions of cells that are sensitive to light. The retina takes the light the eye receives and changes it into nerve signals so the brain can understand what the eye is seeing.

The lens is suspended in the eye by a bunch of fibres. These fibres are attached to a muscle called the ciliary  muscle. The ciliary muscle changes the shape of the lens.  When you look at things up close, the lens becomes thicker to focus the correct image onto the retina. When you look at things far away, the lens becomes thinner.

The biggest part of the eye sits behind the lens and is called the vitreous body. The vitreous body forms two thirds of the eye's volume and gives the eye its shape. It's filled with a clear, jelly-like material called the vitreous humor. After light passes through the lens, it shines straight through the vitreous humor to the back of the eye.

The retina uses special cells called rods and cones to process light. Each eye has about 120 million rods and 7 million cones! Cones and rods are responsible for changing the received light into impulses.

The impulses are then carried to the brain by the optic nerve.

Now you know how the eye works you can understand what causes you to not see clearly: When the ciliary muscle  does not function properly or is weak you are not able to accommodate to the new situation as your lens won't change shape properly.

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